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Aviation Decarbonisation

What is aviation decarbonisation?

In 2021, the airline industry made a formal commitment to take a concrete step towards its decarbonisation, by announcing a carbon neutrality target for 2050, in line with the Paris Agreement. Air transport CO2 emissions make up 2 to 3% of total world emissions and 10% of the transport sector’s emissions. The main lever for decarbonising the aviation sector is to replace fossil fuels (kerosene) with sustainable aviation fuels (SAF): biofuels, synthetic fuels and hydrogen.

The reading text focuses on Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) and the listening text focuses on hydrogen planes.

Reading Skills

Aviation Decarbonisation: Sustainable Aviation Fuel 

 By C. Wilson (2022)

Aviation today plays a key role in the size and state of the global economy, since it is incredibly important in keeping people connected across the world. However, as we continue to travel more and more, and rely on aeroplanes for distribution, as seen in the $3.5tn of the world’s GDP it represents, global carbon emissions as a result of air travel, currently at 3%, could increase by another 20% in the next 30 years (Vigeveno, 2021). According to Moyes (2021), as a return flight from London to San Francisco has a carbon footprint of almost 1 tonne of CO2e, coupled with the fact that the number of passengers travelling by plane is predicted to reach 8 billion by 2050, targets such as a 78% reduction in aviation emissions by 2035 as well as the overall aim of net zero by 2050 (Department for Transport, 2021) must be achieved if we are to reduce the cumulative environmental impacts from aviation.

One of the most effective ways to reduce carbon emissions is currently the use of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). According to the Department for Transport (2021), advocates for SAF believe it to be the only alternative for long-haul flights, which only represent 10% of all air travel yet are accountable for over 60% of UK aviation emissions. Furthermore, Moyes (2021) reports that in business travel and cargo transportation, customers are beginning to not only recognise the benefits of SAF in terms of emission reductions, but are also prepared to fund its use by paying extra for flights which use it. As roughly 200 corporations represent 16% of global air travel, companies who sign up to schemes such as the Low-Carbon Fuel Standard, whereby tradable credits are awarded to ………..

This is just a part of the 783 word text – Buy the download below for the whole text.

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Reading Test – Aviation Decarbonisation: Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) [new 2022]

This 788-word text looks at the environmental impact of aviation. It talks about sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) as an alternative to conventional jet fuel, it explains how SAF is produced and it discusses the issues that have been raised with SAF. The reading test includes: matching headings to paragraphs; true, false, not given; open answer questions; summary identification exercise; reference words and a vocabulary task. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Writing Summary – Aviation Decarbonisation: Sustainable Aviation Fuel [new 2022

This 788-word text looks at the environmental impact of aviation. It talks about sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) as an alternative to conventional jet fuel, it explains how SAF is produced and it discusses the issues that have been raised with SAF. The summary task includes: note-taking worksheet with key, summary writing exercise with one sample summary, and a critical thinking worksheet with suggested answers(Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP 

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Listening Skills 

Video Example

A 1 minute example of the 10.25 minute lecture

Aviation Decarbonisation: Hydrogen Planes

 By A. Watson (2022)

Hello and welcome to today’s lecture on Aviation Decarbonisation and we’ll be specifically looking at hydrogen-powered Planes. I’ll start the lecture today with a basic overview of aviation carbon emissions and highlight the two main alternatives to traditional aviation fuel. I’ll then look at hydrogen energy and discuss how it is made. After that I’ll discuss how the company Airbus is trialling hydrogen fuel technology with the hope to start commercial flights by 2035. This will then follow by looking at the challenges of implementing hydrogen to become commercially competitive and I’ll finish with a summary of my findings.

Ok, so let’s start with an overview of carbon emissions. As aviation continues to play a key role in connecting people, transporting goods and supporting the global economy, there are worrying signs that unless significant changes are made to air travel, it is unlikely that carbon emissions will reduce enough to make a profound impact. As Henderson reports, although emissions have reduced by more than half in the last thirty years, these benefits have been lost due to increased volumes in air traffic, meaning that the carbon dioxide resulting from air travel continues to drive a rise in global average temperature. There are two potential solutions that are being considered at the moment to reduce the increased volume of CO2 emissions: Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) and hydrogen power. The former is derived from sustainable sources and according to both Shell and BP can reduce emissions by 80%. The latter according to Airbus could reduce CO2 emissions by up to 75%. Both of these solutions could contribute to relieving aviation’s global responsibility of up to 22% of CO2 emissions by 2050.

I won’t be going into any more detail on SAF today, as it is my aim to focus more on hydrogen power so this is what I’ll look at now.

Hydrogen is a colourless, lightweight and odourless gas, and one of the most abundant chemical elements.  According to The Economist (2021), it can also store more than a hundred times as much energy per unit of mass than a lithium-ion battery, as well as its only by-product being water vapour. Hydrogen is processed in a number of ways. The most widely used method of commercial hydrogen production is called steam-methane reforming. This currently accounts for nearly all commercially produced hydrogen in the world. Commercial hydrogen producers and petroleum refineries use steam-methane reforming to separate hydrogen atoms from carbon atoms in methane….

This is just a part of the 1243 word text – Buy the download below for the whole text.

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Listening Test: Aviation Decarbonisation: Hydrogen Planes [new 2022]

This short lecture talks about aviation decarbonisation. It looks at the connection between aviation and global average temperatures, it explains how hydrogen is a solution to reduce COemissions, it discusses the processing of hydrogen and how it would work in reality, and it examines the challenges of hydrogen-powered planes. The listening test includes: open answer questions; true, false, not given; multiple choice; and a gap fill summary. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] / Video [10.25]MP3 / PPT link in download / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Aviation Decarbonisation Lesson Book [new 2022]

 

Aviation Decarbonisation Lesson PDF Book

AMAZING VALUE – Four lessons in one book: reading test, reading to writing summary writing, listening test & speaking seminar. Example TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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More Reading Tests [All new for 2022]

Air Pollution

Reading Test: Air Pollution [new 2022]

This 756-word text explains how ambient air pollution is a serious environmental health problem around the world. It talks about how air pollution is measured, the causes and effects of air pollution and the current measures that are being implemented to reduce air pollution. The reading test includes: matching headings to paragraphs; true, false, not given; open answer questions; summary identification exercise; reference words and a vocabulary task. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Reading & Summary Writing Lesson: Air Pollution (new 2022)

This 756-word text explains how ambient air pollution is a serious environmental health problem around the world. It talks about how air pollution is measured, the causes and effects of air pollution and the current measures that are being implemented to reduce air pollution. The summary task includes: note-taking worksheet with key, summary writing exercise with one sample summary, and a critical thinking worksheet with suggested answers(Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP 

 Listening Test: Air Pollution [new 2022]

This short 10:50 lecture introduces the global cost of air pollution. It talks about the most polluted cities around the world, it explains how much air pollution costs developing countries and it puts forward measures to decrease air pollution at a global, national and individual level. The listening test includes: open answer questions; true, false, not given; multiple choice; and a gap fill summary. (ExampleLevel ***** [B2/C1]  / Video [10.50]MP3 / PPT link in download / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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 Seminar Speaking: Air Pollution [new 2022]

This is a speaking seminar sheet that provides a range of questions for students to discuss together after they have done the reading and listening texts. The seminar provides students with an opportunity to discuss the content, share their opinions and build confidence in speaking. Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Buy Now, Pay Later

Reading Test: Buy Now, Pay Later [new 2022]

This 793-word text defines Buy Now, Pay Later (BNPL), it talks about the users and the providers of the platform, it explains the benefits and the drawbacks of BNPL and it looks at what can be done to improve this way of purchasing products. The reading test includes: matching headings to paragraphs; true, false, not given; open answer questions; summary identification exercise; reference words and a vocabulary task. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Reading & Summary Writing Lesson: Buy Now, Pay Later (new 2022)

This 793-word text defines Buy Now, Pay Later (BNPL), it talks about the users and the providers of the platform, it explains the benefits and the drawbacks of BNPL and it looks at what can be done to improve this way of purchasing products. The summary task includes: note-taking worksheet with key, summary writing exercise with one sample summary, and a critical thinking worksheet with suggested answers(Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP 

 Listening Test: Buy Now Pay Later [new 2022]

This short lecture defines Buy Now, Pay Later (BNPL), discusses the market share of different countries, introduces Klarna the largest provider of BNPL, explains why Klarna is so successful and looks at the issues with BNPL using Klarna as an example. The listening test includes: open answer questions; true, false, not given; multiple choice; and a gap fill summary. (ExampleLevel ***** [B2/C1]  / Video [10.14]MP3 / PPT link in download / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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 Seminar Speaking: Buy Now Pay Later [new 2022]

This is a speaking seminar sheet that provides a range of questions for students to discuss together after they have done the reading and listening texts. The seminar provides students with an opportunity to discuss the content, share their opinions and build confidence in speaking. Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Global Debt

Reading Test: Global Debt [new 2022]

This 775-word text defines global debt, explains how to measure global debt and compares the level of debt in some countries. It talks about the difference between emerging markets and advanced economies in terms of debt, it discusses the reasons for the current debt issues and it compares past and present financial crises. The reading test includes: matching headings to paragraphs; true, false, not given; open answer questions; summary identification exercise; reference words and a vocabulary task. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Reading & Summary Writing Lesson: Global Debt (new 2022)

This 775-word text defines global debt, explains how to measure global debt and compares the level of debt in some countries. It talks about the difference between emerging markets and advanced economies in terms of debt, it discusses the reasons for the current debt issues and it compares past and present financial crises. The summary task includes: note-taking worksheet with key, summary writing exercise with one sample summary, and a critical thinking worksheet with suggested answers(Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP 

 Listening Test: Global Debt [new 2022]

This short 10:51 lecture defines global debt, looks at the current trends regarding debt and explains how global borrowing works. It discusses why global borrowing has increased, puts forward some reasons why debt could be sustainable and looks at what’s happening with inflation. The listening test includes: open answer questions; true, false, not given; multiple choice; and a gap fill summary. (ExampleLevel ***** [B2/C1]  / Video [10.51]MP3 / PPT link in download / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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 Seminar Speaking: Global Debt [new 2022]

This is a speaking seminar sheet that provides a range of questions for students to discuss together after they have done the reading and listening texts. The seminar provides students with an opportunity to discuss the content, share their opinions and build confidence in speaking. Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Microchips

Reading Test: The microchip crisis [new 2022]

This 773-word text discusses the current microchip shortage. It looks at the cause and effects of this crisis, it talks about the world’s reliance on the largest two manufacturers, and it puts forward solutions to mitigate this issue. The reading test includes: matching headings to paragraphs; true, false, not given; open answer questions; summary identification exercise; reference words and a vocabulary task. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Reading & Summary Writing Lesson: The microchip crisis (new 2022)

This 773-word text discusses the current microchip shortage. It looks at the cause and effects of this crisis, it talks about the world’s reliance on the largest two manufacturers, and it puts forward solutions to mitigate this issue. The summary task includes: note-taking worksheet with key, summary writing exercise with one sample summary, and a critical thinking worksheet with suggested answers(Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP 

 Listening test: The global microchip crisis [new 2022]

This short lecture explains why there is a global shortage of microchips. It talks about why silicon is used to manufacture microchips, the challenge of producing microchips, the costs involved in production, and the profits the largest manufacturers need to make. The listening test includes: open answer questions; true, false, not given; multiple choice; and a gap fill summary. (ExampleLevel ***** [B2/C1]  / Video [7.14]MP3 / PPT link in download / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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 Seminar Speaking: The global microchip crisis [new 2022]

This is a speaking seminar sheet that provides a range of questions for students to discuss together after they have done the reading and listening texts. The seminar provides students with an opportunity to discuss the content, share their opinions and build confidence in speaking. Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Primark

Reading Test: Primark: a case study [new 2022]

This 760-word text explains how Primark’s business model has led to it becoming a very successful business. It talks about Primark’s plans for expansion, it puts forward the reasons why Primark does not sell its products online and it explains how Primark intends to move towards more sustainable and ethical practices. The reading test includes: matching headings to paragraphs; true, false, not given; open answer questions; reference words and a vocabulary task. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Reading & Summary Writing Lesson: Primark (new 2022)

This 760-word text explains how Primark’s business model has led to it becoming a very successful business. It talks about Primark’s plans for expansion, it puts forward the reasons why Primark does not sell its products online and it explains how Primark intends to move towards more sustainable and ethical practices. The summary task includes: note-taking worksheet with key, summary writing exercise with two sample summaries, and a critical thinking worksheet with suggested answers. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP 

 Listening test: How ethical is Primark? [new 2022]

This short 07.25 lecture introduces the concept of fast fashion, it explains how Primark can buy and sell its garments so cheaply, it looks at Primark’s labour conditions and garment workers’ rights, and it discusses Primark’s carbon footprint. The listening test includes: open answer questions; multiple choice; true, false, not given and a gap fill summary. (ExampleLevel ***** [B2/C1]  / Video [7.25]MP3 / PPT link in download / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

MEMBERS ONLY

 Seminar Speaking: Primark [new 2022]

This is a speaking seminar sheet that provides a range of questions for students to discuss together after they have done the reading and listening texts. The seminar provides students with an opportunity to discuss the content, share their opinions and build confidence in speaking. Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Aviation Decarbonisation

Reading Test - Aviation Decarbonisation: Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) [new 2022]

This 788-word text looks at the environmental impact of aviation. It talks about sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) as an alternative to conventional jet fuel, it explains how SAF is produced and it discusses the issues that have been raised with SAF. The reading test includes: matching headings to paragraphs; true, false, not given; open answer questions; summary identification exercise; reference words and a vocabulary task. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

 Writing Summary - Aviation Decarbonisation: Sustainable Aviation Fuel [new 2022]

This 788-word text looks at the environmental impact of aviation. It talks about sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) as an alternative to conventional jet fuel, it explains how SAF is produced and it discusses the issues that have been raised with SAF. The summary task includes: note-taking worksheet with key, summary writing exercise with one sample summary, and a critical thinking worksheet with suggested answers(Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP 

MEMBERS ONLY

Listening Test - Aviation Decarbonisation: Hydrogen Planes [new 2022]

This short lecture talks about aviation decarbonisation. It looks at the connection between aviation and global average temperatures, it explains how hydrogen is a solution to reduce COemissions, it discusses the processing of hydrogen and how it would work in reality, and it examines the challenges of hydrogen-powered planes. The listening test includes: open answer questions; true, false, not given; multiple choice; and a gap fill summary. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] / Video [10.25]MP3 / PPT link in download / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

MEMBERS ONLY

Seminar Speaking: Aviation Decarbonisation [new 2022]

This is a speaking seminar sheet that provides a range of questions for students to discuss together after they have done the reading and listening texts. The seminar provides students with an opportunity to discuss the content, share their opinions and build confidence in speaking. Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Aviation Decarbonisation Lesson PDF Book

 

AMAZING VALUE - Four lessons in one book: reading test, reading to writing summary writing, listening test & speaking seminar. Example TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

 

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Digital Marketing

Reading Test: Marketing Theories [new 2022]

This 1000-word text looks at the three most common marketing models: the marketing mix (7ps), the PESTLE model and Porter's 5 forces.  It evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of each model and questions their relevancy in today's market . The reading test includes: matching headings to paragraphs; true, false, not given; open answer questions;  citations; reference words and a vocabulary task. (Example) Level ***** [B1/B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

MEMBERS ONLY

Writing Summary: Marketing Theories [new 2022]

This 1000-word text looks at the three most common marketing models: the marketing mix (7ps), the PESTLE model and Porter's 5 forces.  It evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of each model and questions their relevancy in today's market. The summary task includes: note-taking worksheet with key, summary writing exercise with one sample summary, and a critical thinking worksheet with suggested answers(Example) Level ***** [B1/B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP 

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Listening Test: Digital Marketing Strategies [new 2022]

This short lecture talks about marketing strategies. It looks at how companies build brand awareness and customer retention through SEO building, PPC advertising, email and social media campaigns, influencer and affiliate marketing strategies. The listening test includes: gap fill completion; true, false, not given; multiple choice; open answer questions and a gap fill summary. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] / Video [10.30]MP3 / PPT link in download / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Seminar Speaking: Digital Marketing [new 2022]

This is a speaking seminar sheet that provides a range of questions for students to discuss together after they have done the reading and listening texts. The seminar provides students with an opportunity to discuss the content, share their opinions and build confidence in speaking. Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Download

 

Marketing Lesson PDF Book

AMAZING VALUE - Four lessons in one book: reading test, reading to writing summary writing, listening test & speaking seminar. Example TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Behavioural Economics

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Reading Test: Behavioural Economics [new 2022]

This 773-word text discusses behavioural economics. It provides a definition of the key term, it analyses how different this type of economics is from classical economics, it looks at nudge theory along with examples of successful nudges and criticisms of the theory and it ends by considering how society can benefit through both types of economics.  The reading test includes: matching headings to paragraphs; true, false, not given; reference words; open answer questions; citations; and a vocabulary task. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Writing Summary: Behavioural Economics [new 2022]

This 773-word text discusses behavioural economics. It provides a definition of the key term, it analyses how different this type of economics is from classical economics, it looks at nudge theory along with examples of successful nudges and criticisms of the theory and it ends by considering how society can benefit through both types of economics. The summary task includes: note-taking worksheet with key, summary writing exercise with one sample summary, and a critical thinking worksheet with suggested answers(Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Listening Test: Behavioural Economics [new 2022]

This 10-minute lecture talks about how behavioural economics impacts government policy. It defines behavioural economics and nudge theory, it analyses the different types of nudges, it puts forward some successful examples of nudge theory before looking at some of the criticisms of the theory, and it ends with a brief summary. The listening test includes: open answer questions; gap fill summary; true, false, not given; a matching exercise; a gap fill completion activity; and a summary identification task. (Example) Level ***** [B2/C1] / Video [10.00]MP3 / PPT link in download / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Seminar Speaking: Behavioural Economics [new 2022]

This is a speaking seminar sheet that provides a range of questions for students to discuss together after they have done the reading and listening texts. The seminar provides students with an opportunity to discuss the content, share their opinions and build confidence in speaking. Level ***** [B2/C1]  TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Behavioural Economics PDF Book

AMAZING VALUE - Four lessons in one book: reading test, reading to writing summary writing, listening test & speaking seminar. Example TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

 

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