Academic Paragraphing

What is paragraph analysis?

Paragraph analysis is examining a paragraph to look at its features of construction. It’s a process of identifying how the topic sentence links to the paragraph through the development of the topic and controlling idea. The process includes looking at how examples, data and evidence are used to support the main idea and how the author’s voice (opinion) connects with the overall message or content.

Basic Paragraph Structure

A basic paragraph should consist of four key parts. 1) Topic Sentence (sometimes called a paragraph leader). 2) Development (a detailed explanation of the topic. 3) Example (this can be data, stats, evidence, etc..). 4) Summary (summarise the ideas &/or evaluate how effective these are).

Example of a basic paragraph on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

This provides a basic four-part paragraph on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

This image shows how the paragraph is divided into its four key sections.

The Importance of the topic Sentence  

Topic Sentences are extremely important sentences. This image highlights the topic and controlling idea in the topic sentence.

A Topic Sentence should connect clearly to the content of the paragraph. This image highlights how the key terms in the body of the paragraph connect to the topic and controlling idea of the topic sentence.

Basic academic in-text referencing in a paragraph

This example highlights how the ideas in the paragraph are supported by credible authors, and contains examples of reporting verbs with direct and indirect referencing. 

Basic cohesion in a paragraph

This example highlights how cohesive devices are used to connect the ideas together. 

Author’s voice and stance in a paragraph

This example highlights how the author’s voice, demonstrated through the choice of verbs, adjectives and cautious phrases, runs through the paragraph, and how the author’s stance (the opinion) is illustrated throughout the text.

More information on author’s voice = go here

Paragraph Analysis Download

Basic Paragraph Analysis: Corporate Social responsibility (CSR) (new for 2020)

This worksheet provides a step-by-step guide to the key components of a paragraph. It analyses a basic paragraph on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) through structure, topic, cohesion, referencing and stance. It also includes a writing practice on Globalisation. Example.  Level: ***** [B1/B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Argument Essay Structure

An argument essay structure can be organised in two ways: Block & Point-by-Point. Block  is where the two main body paragraphs are divided separately into for or against, and Point-by-Point is where each main body paragraph has an counter-argument followed by the main argument. (see below)

Main Body Paragraph Structure (block or point-by-point)

Academic Paragraph Structure lesson (block or point-by-point)

Academic Paragraph Analysis: block or point-by-point (new for 2020)

This lesson helps students identify the key elements in paragraph writing. It focuses on two paragraph structures: block and point-by-point. Students analyse each paragraph for structure, controlling ideas & key terms, in-text referencing, cohesion and author’s stance. It also includes two writing practices. Example.  Level: ***** [B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP


Reading & Writing Argument: Essay [Mergers & Acquisitions]

Topic: Mergers & Acquisitions. Two short texts (included) – students read the texts, make notes of key arguments,  and write a 400-600 word essay using in-text referencing and paraphrasing. The essay should follow (block / point-by-point structure) more info. Lesson includes teacher notes, outline & a model essay. Example Level ***** [B2/C1] / Webpage link.  / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP


Economic Inequality Lesson PDF Book

AMAZING VALUE – Five lessons in one book. Introduction, definition, reading test & summary writing, 1 x lecture listening, [extra reading text] & seminar / example TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP


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