WRITING / Reference List

 Reference List (Harvard)

The basic overview

All the sources that you use in the main body of your text must be listed at the end of your essay; this is called a reference list and should be in alphabetical order. You need to include:  




Smith, J., 2012. Sustainability: Governmental policy, London. OUP.




The author (last name and initials)/ date / main title & subtitle (italics) / publishing place / publisher: Look carefully at punctuation.




What is a reference list?? a list of  sources (books, articles, websites, journals) you have used in your essay




What's a bibliography?? a is a list of sources that you read but may not have used in essay.




Important: Some universities see reference list and bibliography as the same thing

How to reference a book


Book with one author

Allen, P., 2008. Effective time management: How to save time and spend it wisely, London: Pan Books.



Book with two authors

Miller, P. and Huntington, C., 2010.  Speaking persuasively: Making the most of your presentations, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.



Book with three or more authors

Smith, R., Jones, W. and Watton, B., 2011. Getting to yes: Negotiating an agreement without giving in, 2nd edition, London: Century Business.



Book – second or later edition

Bridges, R., 1995. Successful study for degrees, 2nd edition, London: Routledge.



Book by same author in the same year

Nikon, A., 1993a. Fatal storm, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

Nikon, A., 1993b. Survival at sea, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.



Book with an editor

Devon, P. (ed.), 2009. Beyond the ferris wheel, Rockhampton: CQU Press.



If you have used a chapter in a book written by someone other than the editor

Bridges, J., 2008. ‘Disabilities in tertiary education’, in Rowan, L. and McNamee, J. (ed.) Voices of a Margin, Rockhampton: CQU Press.



Books with an anonymous or unknown author

The University Encyclopedia (1985) London: Roydon.




A Journal

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers.

Peters, C., 2001. The merger acquisition of IBM. Business Management Journal, 97(22), pp.63-64.



Electronic Journal from a Database

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Available through: name of database [Accessed date] 

Smith, J.M., 2002. The business of sustainable policy: an in depth look. Business Science Quarterly [e-journal] 42 (6) Available through: Business Source Complete database [Accessed 12 June 2012].


Electronic Journal from the Internet

Authors, Initials., Year . Title of article, Full Title of Magazine, [online]. Available at: web address (quote the exact URL for the article) [Accessed date]. 

Kipper, D. , 2008. Japan’s new dawn, Popular Science and Technology, [online] Available at:<http://www.popsci.com/popsci37b144110vgn/html> [Accessed 22 June 2012].


A website

Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page. [type of medium] (date of update if available) Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date]. 

Business Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: <http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder> [Accessed 10 October 2012 ].






Newspaper Article

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article or column header. Full Title of Newspaper, Day and month before page numbers and column line.

Janter, G., 2009. Brexit: a new beginning. The Financial Times, 3 Sep. p.47.


Online newspaper article

Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document or page. Name of newspaper, [type of medium] additional date information. Available at: <url> [Accessed date].

Johnson, M., Peters, L. and Smith, D. 2009. Life after the Financial Crash. Times Online, [online] 21 June. Available at: <http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/scotland/article1138006.ece>

[Accessed 17 March 2005].

An example of an academic bibliography:

(in alphabetical order)*


Bills, R. E., 1977. In  Patterson, C. H. Foundations for a Theory of  Instruction and Educational Psychology. London: Harper and Row: 282-385


Buskist, W. and Saville, B. K., 2001. Rapport-building: creating positive emotional contexts for enhancing teaching and learning. Association for Psychological Science. Vol.14, no.3. Available through: Psychology Science Research. [accessed July 21st 2011]          


Dornyei, Z., 2001. Teaching and Researching Motivation. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.


Ehrman, M. and Dornyei, Z., 1998. Interpersonal Dynamics in Second Language Learning. The Visible and Invisible ClassroomCalifornia: Sage.


Hall, E. and Hall, C., 1988. Human Relations in Education. London: Routledge.


Knight, P., 2001. The development of EFL methodologyIn Candlin, N. and Mercer, N. (Eds) English Language Teaching in its Social Context. London: Routledge: 147-166.


McKay, S. L. (2006) Researching Second Language Classrooms. New Jersey: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates.


Moore, A., 2004. The Good Teacher: Dominant Discourses in Teaching and Teacher Education. Oxon: Routeledge.


Patterson, C. H., 1977. Foundations for a Theory of Instruction and Educational Psychology. London: Harper and Row: 282-385


Radnor, H., 2002. Researching your Professional Practice. Buckingham: Open University Press.     


University of Cambridge., 2007. CELTA Syllabus.<www.cambridgeesol.org/assets/pdf/celta8.> [accessed 22nd July 2011]


University of Cambridge., 2007. DLLS/ESOL Syllabus. Available at <www.cambridgeesol.org/assets/pdf/dte-e-lls-syllabus.pdf.> [accessed 22nd July 2011]


Walters, A., 2005.  Expertise in teacher education: helping teachers learn. In Johnson, K (ed) Expertise in Second Language Learning. Basingstoke: CUP.  

More information on referencing: Click here