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Cause and Effect Language

What is Cause & Effect?

Cause and effect is a relationship between events or things where one is the result of the other or others. This is a combination of action and reaction. Something happens (a cause) that leads to an effect.

In academic writing it is necessary to be able to express the relationship between causes and their effects, or effects and their causes.

Academic Cause & Effect Video

A short 6-minute video on cause and effect language.

Video Worksheet click here

PDF Lesson Download

 

 Cause and Effect Language [new 2020]

This lesson helps improve students’ awareness of cause and effect language. It includes a language review section, lots of guided practice and freer paragraph writing practice (example). Time: 60mins.  Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]  TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

 

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Cause & Effect Language Review

Cause and effect language

Other cause & effect language phrases

Nouns indicating causality

One reason why Xs have declined is that …
A consequence of vitamin A deficiency is blindness.
The causal role of X in Y has been demonstrated by …
The most likely causes of X are poor diet and lack of exercise.
The causes of X have been the subject of intense debate within …
X can have profound health consequences for older people.
Physical activity is an important factor in maintaining fitness.
Many other medications have an influence on cholesterol levels.

Expressing a causal relationship tentatively

X may have been an important factor in …
X may have contributed to the increase in …
X may have played a vital role in bringing about
X may have been caused by an increase in …

In the literature, X has been associated with Y.
A high consumption of X could be associated with infertility.
X in many cases may be associated with certain bacterial infections.

Exercise 1

Task: Select a suitable word or phrase from the language review table to complete the gaps in the sentences.

1.Investment in developing countries __________________________ job creation.
 
2.Most artists earn low salaries. __________________________, they should receive funding.
1.Investment in developing countries _______gives rise to__________ job creation.
 
2.Most artists earn low salaries. ________Consequently___________, they should receive funding.
 
[possible answers]

For a detailed worksheet and more exercises – buy the download below.

Exercise 2

Task: Rewrite the following sentences using the information in brackets.

1. Lowering interest rates could be a way to stimulate economic growth. (Use the verb ‘stem’).

  _____________________________________________________________________________________

2. Most poor countries are poor because of the institutions and organisations that govern them. (Use the noun ‘result’).

  _____________________________________________________________________________________

1. Lowering interest rates could be a way to stimulate economic growth. (Use the verb ‘stem’).

 A way to stimulate economic growth could stem from lowering interest rates.

2. Most poor countries are poor because of the institutions and organisations that govern them. (Use the noun ‘result’).

Most poor countries are poor as a result of the institutions and organisations that govern them.

For a detailed worksheet and more exercises – buy the download below.

Exercise 3

Task: Complete the gaps in the following paragraph. Pay attention to grammar and punctuation.

Overpopulation can be defined as a population that exceeds its carrying capacity within a particular environment. A key a) ________________ areas becoming densely populated is a decline in the mortality rate and an increase in the birth rate. These trends can be largely b)____________________ technological advancement, which has c)____________ the creation of important vaccines, fertility treatment and improved medical facilities in general.

Overpopulation can be defined as a population that exceeds its carrying capacity within a particular environment. A key a) factor in areas becoming densely populated is a decline in the mortality rate and an increase in the birth rate. These trends can be largely b) attributed to technological advancement, which has c) led to the creation of important vaccines, fertility treatment and improved medical facilities in general.

[possible answers]

For a detailed worksheet and more exercises – buy the download below.

Exercise 4

Task: Use different colour highlighters to show the causes, the effects & the cause/effect language.

CAUSES / EFFECTS / CAUSE/EFFECT LANGUAGE

In many countries, more and more people are moving from rural areas to urban ones. Over half of the world’s population currently live in cities and of these, thirty-four are known as megacities. The reasons for this increased urbanisation depends on two types of factors known as ‘push’ and ‘pull’. Firstly, the proliferation of people moving to cities stems from push factors such as unemployment, lower wages and poor living conditions. As a result, cities are a more attractive option due to their pull factors of providing more jobs, higher salaries and an overall increased standard of living .

In many countries, more and more people are moving from rural areas to urban ones. Over half of the world’s population currently live in cities and of these, thirty-four are known as megacities. The reasons for this increased urbanisation depends on two types of factors known as ‘push’ and ‘pull’. Firstly, the proliferation of people moving to cities stems from push factors such as unemployment, lower wages and poor living conditions. As a result, cities are a more attractive option due to their pull factors of providing more jobs, higher salaries and an overall increased standard of living .

For a detailed worksheet and more exercises – buy the download below.

Cause & Effect Language Download

 

 Cause and Effect Language [new 2020]

This lesson helps improve students’ awareness of cause and effect language. It includes a language review section, lots of guided practice and freer paragraph writing practice (example). Time: 60mins.  Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]  / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

 

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This lesson highlights what noun phrases are and provides valuable practice. It focuses on the key concepts of quantifiers, adjectives and nouns, noun + noun, noun + preposition and noun phrase combinations (example).  Level ***** [B2/C1]  / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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