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WRITING / Reference List

 Reference List (Harvard & APA)

The basic overview

All the sources that you use in the main body of your text must be listed at the end of your essay; this is called a reference list or bibliography. The sources in the reference list must follow a specific word order and have correct punctuation. 

 

Important: different universities have slightly different versions of referencing so you need to check with your university what guide they use.  Look at these two examples of a book reference. 

Harvard Referencing bibliography

Source: Imperial College London – Harvard referencing guide.

Important: Some Harvard university guides do not use brackets and have different punctuation.

Advice on creating a reference list

  • Some universities  do not have a single standard method for citing and referencing.
  • Departments have different requirements so it is very important to check your student handbook or ask your academic supervisor to be clear on what is expected for your assignments and dissertations.
  • Check which method you are required to use, footnotes or the in-text author-date (Harvard) method.
  • If your department has not specified the method and style then it is your choice. The emphasis is on consistency and not mixing methods and styles. Choosing a specific style will make it easier to find and follow rules for each reference.

Tools

  • Cite this for me is a website which contains advice on how to reference different resources, in a range of styles and provides a tutorial on citing and referencing practice.
  • Reference management software can help you cite and reference consistently. Use software to collect, store and organise your references as you research. Then you can insert your citations using the software and build your reference list as you write your assignment.  
  • The most commonly used software in British universities are: EndNoteMendeley and Zotero.
  • Your department librarian can assist you in using the software.

Referencing List or Bibliography?

What is a reference list?? a list of  sources (books, articles, websites, journals) you have used in your essay

What’s a bibliography?? a is a list of sources that you read but may not have used in essay.

 

***Important: Some universities see reference list and bibliography as the same thing

How to create a reference list in Harvard (two versions) & APA 7th Edition

Books

Book with one author

Allen, P. (2008) Effective time management. London: Pan Books.

 

Book with two authors

Miller, P. & Huntington, C. (2010) Speaking persuasively. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

 

Book with three or more authors

Smith, R., Jones, W. & Watton, B. (2011) Negotiating a business agreement. 2nd edition, London: Century Business.

 

Book – second or later edition

Bridges, R. (1995) Successful study for degrees, 2nd edition, London: Routledge.

 

Book by same author in the same year

Nikon, A. (1993a) Fatal storm, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

Nikon, A. (1993b) Survival at sea, Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

 

Books with an anonymous or unknown author

The University Encyclopedia (1985) London: Roydon.

Journals

A Journal

Author, Initials. (Year) Title of article. Full Title of Journal (italics), Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers.

Peters, C. (2001) The merger acquisition of IBM. Business Management Journal, 97(22), pp.63-64.

 

Electronic Journal from a Database

Author, Initials. (Year) Title of article. Full Title of Journal (italics), Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers. Available from: URL or doi [Accessed date].

Revell, A. and Blackburn, R. (2007) The business case for sustainability? An examination of small firms in the UK’s construction and restaurant sectors. Business Strategy and the Environment, [online] 16(6), pp.404-420. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/bse.499 [Accessed 12 April 2021].

 

Electronic Journal from the Internet

Authors, Initials. (Year) Title of article, Full Title of Journal (italics), [online]. Available from: URL  [Accessed date]. 

Fox, S. (2008) A new dawn for solar energy, Popular Science, [online]. Available from: https://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2008-08/new-dawn-solar-energy/ [Accessed 12 April 2021].

 

Websites

A website

Authorship or Source (Year) Title of web document or web page (italics). Available from: URL [Accessed date]. 

The British Psychological Society (2018) Code of ethics and conduct. Available from: https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/bps-code-ethics-and-conduct [Accessed: 22 March 2019].

 

Newspapers

Online newspaper article

Author or corporate author. (Year) Title of document or page. Name of newspaper (italics), additional date information. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Wolf, M. (2018) What really went wrong in the 2008 financial crisis? The Financial Times, 17 July. Available from: https://www.ft.com/content/e5ea9f2a-8528-11e8-a29d-73e3d454535d [Accessed: 9 April 2021].

 

More information go here:

https://www.imperial.ac.uk/admin-services/library/learning-support/reference-management/harvard-style/your-reference-list/

Books

Book with one author

Allen, P. (2008). Effective time management. Pan Books.

 

Book with two authors

Miller, P. & Huntington, C. (2010). Speaking persuasively. Allen and Unwin.

 

Book with three or more authors

Smith, R., Jones, W. & Watton, B. (2011). Negotiating in business. 2nd edition. Century Business.

 

Book – second or later edition

Bridges, R. (1995). Successful study for degrees (2nd ed). Routledge.

 

Book by same author in the same year

Nikon, A. (1993a). Fatal storm. Allen and Unwin.

Nikon, A. (1993b). Survival at sea. Allen and Unwin.

 

Books with an anonymous or unknown author

The University Encyclopedia (1985). Roydon.

 

 

Journals

A Journal

Author, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Full Title of Journal (italics), Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers. 

Peters, C. (2001). The merger acquisition of IBM. Business Management Journal, 97(22), 63-64.

 

Electronic Journal from a Database with a doi number

Author, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Full Title of Journal (italics), Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers. doi

Revell, A. and Blackburn, R. (2007). The business case for sustainability? An examination of small firms in the UK’s construction and restaurant sectors. Business Strategy and the Environment, 16(6), 404-420. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.499

 

 Electronic Journal from the Internet

Authors, Initials. (Year). Title of article, Full Title of Journal (italics), Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers (if any). URL.

Besser, H. (2002). The next stage: Moving from isolated digital collections to interoperable digital libraries. First Monday, 7(6). https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/958/879

 

Websites

A website

Authorship or Source. (Year & date). Title of web document or web page (italics). URL.

The British Psychological Society (2018, May 18). Code of Ethics and Conduct. https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/bps-code-ethics-and-conduct

 

Newspapers

Online newspaper article

Author or corporate author. (Year and date). Title of document or page (italics). Name of newspaper. URL

Wolf, M. (2018, July 21). What really went wrong in the 2008 financial crisis? The Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/e5ea9f2a-8528-11e8-a29d-73e3d454535d 

 

 

More information – go here:

https://www.librarydevelopment.group.shef.ac.uk/referencing/apa-7ed.html

An example of an academic bibliography 

 Two examples of a reference list

An example of an academic bibliography (in alphabetical order)

 

Bills, R. E. (1977) Foundations for a theory of instruction and educational psychology. London: Harper and Row:  282-385

 

Boughton, J.M. (2002) The Bretton Woods proposal: an in-depth look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Available from: https://journals.openedition.org/cidades/686?lang=en [Accessed 12 April 2021].

 

Buskist, W. and Saville, B. K. (2001) Rapport-building: creating positive emotional contexts for enhancing teaching and learning. Association for Psychological Science. Vol.14, no.3. Available from: https://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/rapport-building-creating-positive-emotional-contexts-for-enhancing-teaching-and-learning [Accessed 10 April 2021].  

 

Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. and Smith, D. (2003) Focus: NHS. Times Online, [online] 1 June. Available from: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/scotland/article1138006.ece  [Accessed 12 April 2021].  

      

Dornyei, Z. (2001) Teaching and researching motivation. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

 

Ehrman, M. and Dornyei, Z. (1998) Interpersonal dynamics in second language learning California: Sage.

 

Fishman, R. (2005) The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book] Chester: Castle Press. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/ahr/article-abstract/94/1/98/150780? [Accessed 12 April 2021].

 

Foundation for Economic Education (FEE). (2014) England’s Whetstone named FEE’s first “Blinking Lights” award recipient. [online] Available from: http://www.fee.org/publications/detail/englands-whetstone-namedfees-first-blinking-lights-award-recipient [Accessed 6 April 2021].

 

Kipper, D. (2008) Japan’s new dawn. Popular Science and Technology, [online] Available from: http://www.popsci.com/popsci37b144110vgn/html  [Accessed 12 April 2021].

 

Knight, P. (2001) The development of EFL methodologyIn Candlin, N. and Mercer, N. (Eds) English Language Teaching in its Social Context. London: Routledge: 147-166.

 

McKay, S. L. (2006) Researching Second Language Classrooms. New Jersey: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates.

 

Moore, A. (2004) The Good Teacher: Dominant Discourses in Teaching and Teacher Education. Oxon: Routeledge.

 

Patterson, C. H. (1977) Foundations for a Theory of Instruction and Educational Psychology. London: Harper and Row: 282-385.

 

Richmond, J. (2005) Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. Ph. D. Anglia Ruskin University.  

 

Silas, P., Yates, J.R. & Haynes, P.D. (2008) Density-functional investigation of the rhombohedral to simple cubic phase transition of arsenic. To be published in Physical Review B. Arxiv. [Preprint] Available from: http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.1692 [Accessed: 3rd April 2021]

 

University of Cambridge. (2007) CELTA Syllabus. Available from: www.cambridgeesol.org/assets/pdf/celta8 [Accessed 2nd April 2021].

 

More information on this referencing version:

https://www.imperial.ac.uk/admin-services/library/learning-support/reference-management/harvard-style/your-reference-list/ 

An example of an APA 7th edition bibliography: (in alphabetical order)

 

Bills, R. E. (1977). Foundations for a theory of instruction and educational psychology. Harper and Row:  282-385

 

Boughton, J.M. (2002). The Bretton Woods proposal: an in-depth look. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6). http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk

 

Buskist, W. and Saville, B. K. (2001). Rapport-building: creating positive emotional contexts for enhancing teaching and learning. Association for Psychological Science. 14(3) https://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/rapport-building-creating-positive-emotional-contexts-for-enhancing-teaching-and-learning  

 

Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. and Smith, D. (2003, 1 June). Focus: NHS. Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/scotland/article1138006.ece

 

Dornyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and researching motivation. Pearson Education Limited.

 

Ehrman, M. and Dornyei, Z. (1998). Interpersonal dynamics in second language learning. Sage.

 

Fishman, R. (2005). The rise and fall of suburbia. Castle Press. https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/94.1.98

 

Foundation for Economic Education (FEE). (2014, 26 May). England’s Whetstone named FEE’s first “Blinking Lights” award recipient.  https://fee.org/resources/englands-whetstone-named-fees-first-blinking-lights-award-recipient/

 

Kipper, D. (2008). Japan’s new dawn. Popular Science and Technology, https://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2008-08/new-dawn-solar-energy

 

Knight, P. (2001). The development of EFL methodologyIn Candlin, N. and Mercer, N. (Eds) English Language Teaching in its Social Context. Routledge: 147-166.

  

McKay, S. L. (2006). Researching Second Language Classrooms. Lawerence Erlbaum Associates.

 

Moore, A. (2004). The Good Teacher: Dominant Discourses in Teaching and Teacher Education. Routeledge.

 

Patterson, C. H. (1977). Foundations for a Theory of Instruction and Educational Psychology. Harper and Row: 282-385.

 

Richmond, J. (2005). Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. Ph. D. Anglia Ruskin University.  

 

Silas, P., Yates, J.R. & Haynes, P.D. (2008, 9 Oct). Density-functional investigation of the rhombohedral to simple cubic phase transition of arsenic. Physical Review B. Arxiv. https://arxiv.org/abs/0810.1692

 

University of Cambridge. (2007). CELTA Syllabus. www.cambridgeesol.org/assets/pdf/celta8 .

 

 

More information – go here:

https://www.librarydevelopment.group.shef.ac.uk/referencing/apa-7ed.html

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Reference Guide Downloads

Referencing Guide: Harvard

 This is a basic reference guide to citing and creating a reference list or a bibliography. It shows the correct way to create in-text citations and reference lists for books, journals, online newspapers and websites.  Web page link. TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Referencing Guide: APA 7th Edition

 This is a basic reference guide to citing and creating a reference list or a bibliography. It shows the correct way to create in-text citations and reference lists for books, journals, online newspapers and websites.  Web page link. TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Free Download

Referencing Lessons

 

Referencing: Harvard Referencing Worksheet 1 [updated 2021]

Two part worksheet that is a paragraph and reference list.  Students have to put in the correct in-text reference. The second part is a reference list exercise where students have to put the sections in the correct order. A nice lesson to introduce students to referencing and becoming aware of key referencing principles.  Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]  Example  / Webpage link / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

 

Referencing: Harvard Referencing Worksheet 2 [new for 2021]

This lesson supports students in their understanding and use of Harvard referencing. It contains six worksheets: a discussion on referencing, a noticing activity, a reordering task, an error identification exercise, a sentence completion task, a gap-fill activity and a reference list task. Teacher’s notes and key are provided..  Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]  Example  / Webpage link / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Referencing: APA 7th Edition Referencing Worksheet 1 [updated 2021]

Two part worksheet that is a paragraph and reference list. Students have to put in the correct in-text reference. The second part is a reference list exercise where students have to put the sections in the correct order. A nice lesson to introduce students to referencing and becoming aware of key referencing principles.  Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]   Example  / Webpage link  / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Referencing: APA 7th Edition Referencing Worksheet [new for 2021]

This lesson supports students in their understanding and use of APA referencing. It contains six worksheets: a discussion on referencing, a noticing activity, a reordering task, an error identification exercise, a sentence completion task, a gap-fill activity and a reference list task. Teacher’s notes and key are provided.Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]   Example  / Webpage link  / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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How to use www.citethisforme.com [new for 2021]

This lesson is an introduction to using an online reference generator: www.citethisforme.com. It begins by providing a step-by-step guide to using the application and its many functions. The lesson is a task-based activity where students use the reference generator to create bibliography citations. Worksheet example Time: 60mins.  Level ***** [B1/B2/C1] / Video / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Paraphrasing Lesson 1 – how to paraphrase effectively

 It starts by discussing the differences between quotation, paraphrase and summary. It takes students through the basics of identifying keywords, finding synonyms and then changing the grammatical structure. There is plenty of practice, all with efficient teacher’s notes. Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]  Example / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Paraphrasing Lesson 2 – improve your paraphrasing skills [new for 2021]

This lesson helps students to improve their paraphrasing skills. The guided learning approach includes a text analysis activity where students identify the paraphrasing strategies, five sentence-level tasks to practise the strategies and two paragraph-level exercises to build on the previous tasks.. Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]  Example / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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    Writing a paragraph – using quotes about smoking

Students are given a worksheet with nine quotes taken from The New Scientist, BBC News, The Economist, etc… and choose only three. They use these three quotes to write a paragraph trying to paraphrase the quotes and produce a cohesion piece of writing. Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]   Example/ TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Reporting verbs: worksheet 

 Use the verbs in the box to put into the sentences in the worksheet. Each sentence has a description of the type of verb needed. Check the grammar of the verb too! Web page link. TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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 What’s a Credible Academic Source??

Credible sources are generally texts that can be trusted and authoritative. These would be texts with support in terms of reliable evidence (facts, data, statistics) and often referring to previous work by academic authors. The most common credible sources are scholarly journals, conference papers and books because these have been peer-reviewed (read and approved for publication by other authors). However, there are good websites that can be used generally ending in .gov / .edu / .ac.

Primary and Secondary Sources

Two types of sources Primary and Secondary. A primary source is main source of evidence. This can be raw data, records and key facts. A secondary source draws on the primary data and analyses it.

Key questions to ask when evaluating source material

Is there an author? Date?

Is there evidence? Where is it from? Sourced?

Is there a reference list? And in-text referencing?

Generally, there shouldn’t be glossy pictures or advertising.

It should be written in an academic formal style and quite difficult to read.

Reading & Research Skills: What is a credible source?

This lesson highlights the key components of identifying credible and reliable resources. It includes a check list on 20 different sources and students have to decide whether these are credible or not? Page link  Level ***** [B1/B2]  TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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