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WRITING / Reference VerbsReference List / Referencing

 In-Text Referencing

When you use information from a text, you have to acknowledge it / state who said it.   Why?

  • It’s not your idea, so you must give credit to the writer of the idea.
  • It allows your audience to distinguish between your ideas and the ideas you’ve used from other writers.
  • It helps you to avoid plagiarism.

Name : Christopher Smith

Use the surname only ‘Smith’

Smith (2010) states that there were periods of rapid increase which were due to revolutions in technology.

The reporting verb is usually in the present simple

More reporting verbs – (for correct use of these verbs click here)

explains / describes / suggests / states / claims / asserts / contends / maintains / declares / implies / argues / emphasises / highlights / stresses / observes / notes / comments / points out / demonstrates / shows / proves / mentions / pinpoints / advances / puts forward / proposes / casts doubt on / questions

Referencing Lessons

Quotation

Include the page number if available and single quotation marks ……

Smith (2010:221) states that Exeter Council spends £3.3 million each year on biofuel heating rather than £7 million it would spend if it still relied on oil and gas.

According to Smith (2010:221) Exeter Council spends £3.3 million each year on biofuel heating rather than £7 million it would spend if it still relied on oil and gas.

Exeter Council spends £3.3 million each year on biofuel heating rather than £7 million it would spend if it still relied on oil and gas (Smith, 2010:221).

Confusion: different punctuation – (Smith, 2010:221) or (Smith, 2010, p. 221) or (Smith, 2010, pp. 221-222) 

 

Paraphrased sentences

Smith (2010) states that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith, 2010).

 

Two Authors

Notice the ampersand (&). Use the ampersand in non-integral citations, but use ‘and’ in integral citations.

Smith and Jones (2010) state that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith & Jones, 2010).

 

Three Authors

Smith, Jones, and Clark (2010) state that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith, Jones & Clark, 2010). 

 

More than 3 authors = ‘et al’

Look at the punctuation –  Smith et al. (2010) and (Smith et al., 2010)

Smith et al. (2010) state that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith et al., 2010).

 

Different authors / different books – same idea  (synthesis)

Chronological order (i.e. earliest first) – Smith 2010 / Jones 2012

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith 2010; Jones 2012).

 

An author quoting another author (as cited in)

You use the main author’s name and date (from the book you are using: Smith 2010)

Jones (as cited in Smith, 2010) states that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

 

No date (n.d)

Smith (n.d) states that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

 

No Author

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Anon., 2012).

 

Websites

UK Governmental Policy Online (2010) states that Exeter council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Quotation

Include the page number if available and double quotation marks ……

Smith (2010 p.221) states that Exeter Council spends £3.3 million each year on biofuel heating rather than £7 million it would spend if it still relied on oil and gas“.

According to Smith (2010 p.221) Exeter Council spends £3.3 million each year on biofuel heating rather than £7 million it would spend if it still relied on oil and gas.

Exeter Council spends £3.3 million each year on biofuel heating rather than £7 million it would spend if it still relied on oil and gas” (Smith, 2010 p.221).

 

Paraphrased sentences

Smith (2010) states that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith, 2010).

 

Two Authors

Notice the ampersand (&). Use the ampersand in non-integral citations, but use ‘and’ in integral citations.

Smith and Jones (2010) state that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith & Jones, 2010)

 

Three Authors

Smith, Jones, and Clark (2010) state that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith, Jones & Clark, 2010). 

 

More than 3 authors = ‘et al’

Look at punctuation –  Smith et al. (2010) and (Smith et al., 2010)

Smith et al. (2010) state that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith et al., 2010).

 

Different authors / different books – same idea  (synthesis)

chronological order (i.e. earliest first) – Smith 2010 / Jones 2012

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Smith 2010; Jones 2012).

 

An author quoting another author (as cited in)

You use the main author’s name and date (from the book you are using: Smith 2010)

Jones (as cited in Smith, 2010) states that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

 

No date (n.d)

Smith (n.d) state that Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

 

No Author

Exeter Council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy (Anon., 2012).

Websites

UK Governmental Policy Online (2010) states that Exeter council saves £4.7 million on heating from changing to sustainable energy.

Referencing Guide: Harvard

 This is a basic reference guide to citing and creating a reference list or a bibliography. It shows the correct way to create in-text citations and reference lists for books, journals, online newspapers and websites.  Web page link. TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Free Download

Referencing Guide: APA 7th Edition

 This is a basic reference guide to citing and creating a reference list or a bibliography. It shows the correct way to create in-text citations and reference lists for books, journals, online newspapers and websites.  Web page link. TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Free Download

 

Referencing: Harvard Referencing Worksheet 1 [updated 2021]

Two part worksheet that is a paragraph and reference list.  Students have to put in the correct in-text reference. The second part is a reference list exercise where students have to put the sections in the correct order. A nice lesson to introduce students to referencing and becoming aware of key referencing principles.  Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]  Example  / Webpage link / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Referencing: Harvard Referencing Worksheet 2 [new for 2021]

This lesson supports students in their understanding and use of Harvard referencing. It contains six worksheets: a discussion on referencing, a noticing activity, a reordering task, an error identification exercise, a sentence completion task, a gap-fill activity and a reference list task.   Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]  Example  / Webpage link / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Referencing: APA 7th Edition Referencing Worksheet 1 [updated 2021]

Two part worksheet that is a paragraph and reference list. Students have to put in the correct in-text reference. The second part is a reference list exercise where students have to put the sections in the correct order. A nice lesson to introduce students to referencing and becoming aware of key referencing principles.  Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]   Example  / Webpage link  / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Referencing: APA 7th Edition Referencing Worksheet [new for 2021]

This lesson supports students in their understanding and use of APA referencing. It contains six worksheets: a discussion on referencing, a noticing activity, a reordering task, an error identification exercise, a sentence completion task, a gap-fill activity and a reference list task. Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]   Example  / Webpage link  / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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How to use www.citethisforme.com [new for 2021]

This lesson is an introduction to using the online reference generator: www.citethisforme.com. It begins by providing a step-by-step guide to using the application and its many functions. The lesson is a task-based activity where students use the reference generator to create bibliography citations. Worksheet example Time: 60mins.  Level ***** [B1/B2/C1] / Video / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Reporting Verbs 

 Use the verbs in the box to put into the sentences on the worksheet. Each sentence has a description of the type of verb needed. Check the grammar of the verb too! Web page link. TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

Free Download

    Writing a paragraph – using quotes about smoking

Students are given a worksheet with nine quotes taken from The New Scientist, BBC News, The Economist, etc… After selecting only three, they use these three quotes to write a paragraph trying to paraphrase the quotes and produce a cohesion piece of writing. Level ***** [B1/B2/C1]   Example  / Webpage link / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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